Heading options control its display and HTML code. To style widgets check the style options!
Excerpt options control how post excerpt is displayed. Usually news websites don't show excerpts on pages, but there's an option to do it, so it's on you.
Meta options control how post meta is displayed. Meta can be categories, or any taxonomy, author, date, time etc.
Pagination will let you section posts by pages. There are 3 pagination types available. Load more, numbers pagination (default) and the left and right arrows.